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Monitoring

Monitoring can be defined as a documentation of short- or long-term shifts in the lichen vegetation (species composition, growth rates) due to natural and anthropogenic environmental changes; this requires repeated surveys

in contrast to this:

Indication

The term indication can be defined as a documentation of the state of lichen vegetation for the purpose of getting knowledge about the environmental situation (e.g. living conditions for people); indication requires bioindicational scales

Monitoring
Introduction